Ayurveda has eight parts called as "Ashtangas"
("Ashta" means eight; "anga" means part).
These eight parts of Ayurveda deal with different subjects.
They are as follows:
||Internal and external treatments for the
||Diseases related to infants.
||Healing of psychological problems.
||Treatments related to the head region.
||Surgeries and operations.
||The science of detoxification.
||Methods to rejuvenate the saptadhatus.
||Science of aphrodisiacs.
1. Kaya chikitsa:
"Kaya" means body, "chikitsa" means
treatment. In Kayachikitsa, treatment is given to the body,
both externally and internally. Kayachikitsa can be done by
Panchakarma (which means "five methods").
These methods are: Vaman, Virechan, Basti, Nasy and Rakta
Pachakarma includes three phases: Poorva karma, Pradhan Karma,
Pashchat Karma. Along with this Panchakarma some other procedures
like Shirodahra, Shirobasti, Katibhsati and Sarwangdhara can
be used to heal the whole body.
In Kayachikitsa, the detection of disease includes the following
basic principles according to Sootra sthana ("Sootra"
means principles, "sthana" means part. Sootra sthana
means "part with principles of Ayurveda"):
- Nadi sodhana [testing of nadi]
- Functionality of organs
- Vata, Pitta and Kapha doshas
- Intensity of the disease and strength of the patient
- Disease and its symptoms
Then the disease can be cured by selecting a proper medicine.
That medicine may come from any of the following and also
- Oshadi [herbs]
- Rasa [mercury etc]
- Uparasa [includes bone, hair etc]
- Kara [potassium nitras etc]
- Sara [ammonium chloride]
- Stavara [poisons]
- Jangama [poisons]
- Pashana [arsenic compounds]
- Loha [metals]
Kayachikitsa also includes Kayakalpa, which means rejuvenation
2. Bala chikitsa
It contains "Balaroga prakarana" which means the
description about diseases of infants. This part of Ayurveda
includes diseases related to infants like "Grahani"
[motions], Vantibedhi [vomiting], Jvara [fevers], Graha chikitsa
In this part, there are so many methods of fumigations [dhoopa
chikitsa] to cure viral infections. Curing of these viral
infections is called as Bhoota chikitsa.
chikitsa [Psychiatry / Bhutavidya]:
This part of Ayurveda includes healing of psychological
problems. The healing of psychological imbalances can be cured
by different methods. They are as follows:
- Dhoopa chikitsa [Fumigation]
- Mantra [by chanting some sacred syllables]
- Tantra [Using specific herbs]
- Yantra [Sacred symbols]
The description about the herbs for this treatment was given
in "GrahaVidya dravya".
chikitsa [Shalakya tantra / Salakhaya]:
This part of Ayurveda includes treatment of head [neck,
eye, nose, and teeth]. The disease related to those upper
parts can be detected by following the principles of "Sootra
"Susruta" is the father of Surgery. He was the
first surgeon who did an eye operation successfully. He used
surgical instruments made up of stone and wood. Usage of his
instruments is still obscure for modern surgeons. This salya
chikitsa includes operation of tumors, bone fractures, internal
obstructions, removing foreign substances from body. It may
also include operations that ease the delivery in critical
chikitsa [Science of Detoxification]:
This part of Ayurveda includes detoxification methods. It
is also called as "Agada tantra". The accumulation
of poisons and toxins takes place in the body due to:
- Secretions of bacteria, fungi, viruses
- Junk food
- Bites of insects and snakes
- Bad habits like smoking and consumption of alcohol
prakarana [Jara chikitsa]:
This part includes different methods to rejuvenate the saptadhatus
[seven constituent elements] of the body and to increase ojas.
In this part "Kuti pravesa" is a method which is
useful for preventing the symptoms of old age.
Better sex, long life can be attained through this part of
[Science of Aphrodisiacs]:
"Vajee" means Horse, "Karanam" means
to follow. Vajeekarana means a combination of herbs which
gives the sexual capability that is equal to that one of a
horse. It develops "Sukra dhatu". This part also
cures problems like impotency and infertility to some extent.
These medicines also develop and strengthen Saptadhatus.